Download Flash Drive Recovery Software

“… Today morning, I was transferring some important office files from USB flash drive to the system. Abruptly my system turned off due to a sudden power loss. Later, when I logged in I was literally shocked!!! The transfer process was terminated in between and some files were missing. I have lost some important office documents. I’m worried!!! Can anyone suggest me: How can I achieve flash drive recovery to get back my office documents?” I’m running Windows 10 Operating system.


“… I captured photos of my Daughter’s birthday celebration in Nikon digital camera while previewing the pictures, unfortunately; I hit on “Delete All” button. As a result of that entire gallery pictures from the camera have been deleted permanently. I have lost most precious and memorable photos of my daughter’s birthday celebration. I’m upset!!!! Is it possible to recover the photos from Nikon camera? If so: how can I perform Nikon camera SD card data recovery?”

“… My memory card storage was completely occupied, to free up some space I thought to transfer entire data from memory card to the laptop and connected memory card through the card reader. When I tried to access, my laptop window was popping with a notification alert to format the memory card. What’s wrong?? Before it was absolutely working fine but now I’m not able to read or write the data from memory card. I don’t even have a backup if I format the memory card complete data will be lost permanently. Oh god!!!! I’m tensed… Can anyone guide me a way to tackle this issue?”

Flash drives are the media storage devices which are most extensively used by maximum users all over the world. Because of its advanced features such as high transfer rate, easy to store any huge files safe and secure and moreover can be carried out anywhere…. anytime… it has gained a wide popularity in this decade. If the data stored on it is lost or deleted, it might disturb our daily activities.

Data or file deletion from a flash drive can cause due to any reason. If you come across any of such scenario, do not worry!!! Be calm. Flash drive recovery can be easily achieved by using external third party recovery tool named Flash drive recovery software.

This application is designed with special scanning algorithm, which easily recovers the data from the flash drive in a few simple mouse clicks. Photos, videos, audios, documents such as PDF, PPT, DOC, DOCX, etc. can be restored easily. Deleted/ formatted/lost data from various flash drive devices like SD card, memory card, USB drive, pen drive, XD card, etc. can be recovered without any difficulty. This software provides an option to store the recovered files or data on CD/ DVD efficiently. This software easily recovers data from various versions of Windows as well as on Mac operating system.

To retrieve any data/files from flash drives, just move ahead few simple steps with flash drive recovery software.

Recuperate PST Files on Outlook

Outlook is known as the best application, introduced by Microsoft which is usually used to store your files and data in PST file format. PST is the used file format in MS Outlook where users can create multiple numbers of accounts on same PST file. It stores all personal data of users like emails, messages, tasks, contacts, calendar etc. When your saved files get affected or files will be deleted or lost from the Outlook account, all your saved files will not remain there any further. So many reasons are there which causes data loss problem. While users try to recoup their lost files, it must require one most useful recovery utility with all most updated features of modern days. Getting these kinds of utilities is not an easy task for you. It requires lots of research regarding the files recovery products which support PST lost file recovery.

To restore damaged PST files you need to be more careful with every PST files may carry all essential files like official document files, company financial details and so many personal details of any users. While trying to bring back your damaged PST files, make sure that other files in the same folder or from another folder should not get damaged. Only one best quality software can assure you about this data loss problem. While trying to restore PST files, make it sure that your software will not only restore damaged PST files but also has the capability to repair lost files at the same time.

MS Outlook is known as the most useful application as this provides so many features. But in few unexpected scenarios, users may experience several data loss problems. It can happen due to users’ mistakes. If users operate their Outlook accounts securely, then chances of losing data will be less. But several situations arise when users do some mistakes and PST files will be deleted. Users often forget about the maximum file size of PST files and continue saving more number of files on same PST file. But in the case when the maximum file size exceeds its limit, saved files will bypass from PST files and you will lose them.

Another reason for PST file loss can be updated Outlook application. When your Outlook version gets updated, existing files in it won’t get updated properly. So many of the files become corrupted due to which sometimes many of the saved files also become inaccessible to its users. In few cases when you have not closed your Outlook account properly and you select to shut down your system suddenly. It may cause your PST file corruption problem. PST files also get damaged at the time when users try to access files over the network. If at that time server network link creates any problem, files saved on it will also get deleted or damaged.

To solve the matter of PST file damage or PST file deletion y you must need PST file recovery software. Are you still thinking where to get this kind of software?

Restore PST Files is the software to get back lost and damaged PST files instantly. Whether your PST files are saved on bad sectors of your computer hard drive, this software has the capability to bring back your files without any loss of your deleted or lost data. All reasons you can overcome with this unique software. You just no need to bother about anything regarding your Outlook edition, as this software supports all available editions of your Outlook application. It has the capability to bring back all files from all attributes of MS Outlook. The complete procedure of data recovery is very less time taking and easy to perform. If you want to use this software on your system, download it now and enjoy its features to recoup lost PST files.translations from english to french

Simple techniques to carry out memory card recovery Mac

Every computing platform, which ranges from hand-held devices to supercomputers require storage devices to keep data either temporarily or permanently. In earlier days, punch cards were utilized to store the information, only a few bytes of information this too not permanently. But, rapid growth in technology leads to different types of storage devices like hard disks, USB drives, memory cards etc, that happen to be capable of store approximately terabytes of data. Removable storage devices like memory cards are most favored to keep a large amount of data since they’re having many advantages over the hard drive. Memory cards are small in size, portable which enable it to be able to store a wide range of data. These are less vulnerable to physical damage since they don’t have any moving parts like computer drives. But, memory cards could get corrupted if it’s not handled appropriately causing data loss. There is numerous memory card recovery Mac software available to recover lost data from storage device.

Memory card corruptions are closely related to malware, spyware or virus attack, which can result in data loss. On account of virus attack, a file system of your memory card can get corrupted, making data inaccessible producing loss of data. Viruses destroy the files through getting attached itself for some program so, when you facilitate the program, virus program which can be attached go for executed, that might reproduce the virus program again by attaching itself to some other program, where you is probably not capable of recognizing the original program. To get rid of virus you’ll be able to format your memory card, but it isn’t the good solution. Because, formatting will erase complete data and creates a new file system, which may lead to data loss. So, you need to the problem you must have a backup. Or perhaps you can perform formatted memory card recovery from memory card recovery software.

Some portable electronics like iPods usually are not using any external memory cards to hold a large amount of data. They store data in the form of flash-based memory. They can store the great number of music files, videos, image files, text files etc. It will always be required to keep a backup of your important data in order that during data loss situation it is simple to restore them. In case you don’t have an appropriate backup of one’s data, the very best treatment for recover info is using memory card recovery software.

You can use Remo Recover (Mac) – Media software that may help you to recuperate lost data since it has special inbuilt algorithms. This software recovers deleted or lost RAW photos, audio recordings and video files from various kinds of memory cards like SD, CF, MMC, XD. You can even download the demo version with this software and discover the report on recovered data, to help you recover the data that you want. After recovery, you can save your recovered data into any accessible drives of Mac like CD or DVD. This can be user-friendly software; even novice users can easily utilize this software to recuperate deleted or lost data from memory cards.

Partition Recovery Software to Recover Lost or Deleted Partition

Hello all, I am using Windows OS based Dell laptop which consists of only one partition apart from the active partition. Last week, I decided to add more partition in order to store data in an uncongested way and I formatted the partition before performing partitioning the drive. After doing the formatting only, I came to know that I don’t have a proper backup of some important data which made me disappointed. All I want to know, is there any possible way to get back data which is lost due to my carelessness? Please help me in this hopeless situation, any kindly of assistance will be highly appreciated. Thanks in advance guys!

A hard drive can be segmented into multiple logical drives on both Windows and Mac computers. The dissection of those drives is called as partitions. By partitioning HDD, you will be able to store files which incorporate numerous styles of documents. But, there are different causes due to which you may lose data from hard drive such as file system corruption, drive crash, abrupt termination of a system, unintentional deletion, etc. Mostly, it has seen that user may format or deletes their partition unknowingly. In other cases, users may not even know how their drive or partition is lost.

However, deleted or lost partition can be easily recovered using the most reliable and result oriented application called Formatted Partitions Recovery Software. It is extensively used software worldwide by users to recover partitions.

Common Causes behind Partition Loss or Deletion on Windows and Mac:

  • Third Party App: There are different tools available to shrink or extend the size of hard drive partitions. But, while carrying the process, if something goes wrong, then there are chances for partition deletion.
  • Accidental Deletion: Hard drive partitions can be resized using the Disk Management Utility and Disk Utility in Windows and Mac respectively. But, many times, while performing this task, you may accidentally delete the partition.
  • Partition Table Corruption: Partition Table holds the information about the partition on the system, and if it gets corrupted due to some reasons, then your HDD partitions may go missing from it which leads to huge data loss.
  • Other Reasons: Partition mat get lost or deleted due to other reasons like a power surge, aged drive, MBR corruption, wrong re-partitioning process, and so on.

Regardless of these causes, you can easily recover partitions after a loss or deletion using the most preferred utility named as Formatted Partitions Recovery Software.

Advanced Features of This Recovery Software

This product can recover data from deleted and lost partitions on both Windows and Mac OS platforms. Using this tool, you can recover data from formatted, corrupted, RAID and RAW partitions. It facilitates you to restore partitions from IDE, SATA and SCSI hard drives. In addition to deleted or lost partitions recovery, it can even get back files from memory cards, USB flash drives, iPods, cameras, pen drives, and so on. You can also able to preview the recovered partition before restoration.

Mac File Recovery Software

Mac OS X is among the most famous OS in the present scenario. It is designed and developed by Apple Inc. It’s is the most important innovations in the field of computers world. It had become popular in very a shorter time due to the advanced features. Mac OS is developed on UNIX platform; therefore, it’s very secure and safe.

Various kinds’ data storage drive is utilized on Mac computers. And data loss from these storage drives (external hard disk, system hard drive, system volume, USB drive) is incredibly common these days. There are several situations, which may delete data and results in loss of data. Data loss always a pain, either it is from an external drive or it’s from system’s hard drive.

To deal up with such terrible situations, you will need some appropriate software, which could recover your whole body data back. Recover Mac files software program is the right one. It may easily recover deleted Mac files, without changing its original form. Pretty sure supports all major versions of Mac OS X and can recover Mac OS X files only within a short while. Before recovery, you should comprehend the reasons that induce loss of data.

  • Improper shutdown of the system: – In a hurry, so many people shut down their system from the system power switch. For that reason, a few of your files from hard drive are lost. Sudden power failure is an additional reason behind the improper shutdown.
  • Formatting a drive or volume: Sometimes for clearing a drive data, you format it but later on, you realize that drive was having some important files. While you don’t possess a backup of people file, you lose your crucial data.
  • Ignoring warning messages: – Whenever you tires to eliminate your hard drive forcibly, a popup will come, that drive just isn’t safe to remove. You ignore that message and take out the drive in the system. Improper ejection of drives may delete some files from your hard drive.
  • Accidental deletion of data: – Some time while deleting one file accidentally, you delete another file. Also, if you delete by utilizing shift + delete option, then it is emptied from recycle bin to result in loss of data.
  • Virus attack: – Pirated version of antivirus program allows viruses to address on the system. Severe viruses will corrupt one’s body hard disk drive and make it inaccessible, which in turn cause loss of data.

To avoid crucial computer data from these dreadful scenarios, you can follow some precautions. These precautions allow you to straighten out data loss to some level, as they are not so tuff. Some really good precautions are:-

  • Update virus of one’s system once in a month to safeguard your whole body against virus attack.
  • Create a backup of the important data before formatting and reformatting, and save it in most reliable storage drive.
  • Close application properly after finishing work.
  • Use strong power source to stop the abrupt shutdown.

If above precaution doesn’t work then don’t trouble yourself, almost always there is yet another way, we simply looking for it. That is certainly Recover Mac tool; it will look into all you could loss of data problems. It really is 100 % safe and sound program. It recovers data in their original form with no encryption. It may identify photos or files with the help of its extension. To extract your lost/deleted files, just download the free demo version of this software, examine the end result and when you’re satisfied with it, then purchase its full version and save recovered files.

Useful Hard Disk Partition Recovery Utility

A hard disk partition is the most effective option for every user. To deal with your large amount of files, users have started using this method. When you keep your huge amount of information on your pc hard drive or any other software on your same computer it can be big hamper for users. While accessing some of the files from system users become completely puzzled. They don’t obtain required data easily from that hard disk. So that they always choose dive partition option. After partitioning complete hard disk space it becomes quite simple for users to access any of required files. You simply need to remember in which partition you have saved your files. So in case of partitioning hard drive space, it is useful but the situation becomes so complicated when users lost any of their hard disk drive partition or all their partitions. Losing partition could be the craziest situation for each and every user.

How to handle it in case users lost their drive partition through the computer hard disk instantly? Nobody wants to lose any one of their data because of mistakes. Users don’t even realize that they lost their hard drive partitions. It may happen because of some technical problems or on account of some other scenarios. However, the matter would be to restore those lost data from deleted partition. To do so you may search over internet for such software, that may perform partition recovery with no failure? If in case of installing any new software you should be careful regarding your data corruption or any more loss partition restoration. In case of selecting the proper type of software, you should opt for the software with great perfection.
The most useful option of getting back your lost partition data saved on Windows computer or on Mac computer, partition recovery software can be the ideal option. In case of partition recovery on Mac system and for Windows system, this type of software scans your whole drive in search of lost partition. Whether it gets lost partition data it easily restores those files immediately.

For a complete understanding of partition deletion reasons, you need to be alerted to the scenarios. Among all of them, you may have heard Disk part command on your computer. Those who don’t aware of it, they should know that it is mainly used for changing drive partitions, partition data or their size. The same command you can even use for deleting, formatting or reformatting hard disk drive partitions. If any kind of mistake happens like you may want to repartition your hard drive partitions, this Disk part command can take away your complete partition instantly. So it will be suitable for every user if you are likely to use Disk part command, be careful about losing hard drive data. This can be the situation when users feel the necessity of the partition recovery software on the system. Only this partition recovery software can solve your partition data loss problems.

Another responsible reason could be the virus attack problem on the system hard drive. Along with your drive data in some unpredictable situation, your files can get lost with deletion associated with a drive partition easily. While these viruses attack boot sectors on the hard drive. As these boot sectors have the effect on partition management process, if this boot sector gets corrupted then possibly your saved files are going to be deleted combined with the complete partition. Here you need to require the software to retrieve lost partition on your own system. While wanting to delete some of the selected partitions which you don’t require any further if you choose to deleted another partition it will likely be the worst type of condition for you personally.

In order to avoid such partition loss, you could possibly follow few precautions. You could possibly stay updated using your back up files of every single precious document. Out of this backup files it is simple to get back access to your lost partition data again.
No matter the reason for drive partition deletion problem is, the best choice you’ve currently is the My Partition Recovery software. It is the easiest and useful software you’ve ever used. Not merely technical persons, any novice users could also use this software to obtain their lost partition data on their system. It is the fastest recovery software anyone has ever experienced. This utility also comes in Mac editions for the people users who look forward to regain partitions on Mac system. With the same effectiveness of this software, its Windows edition will restore back your lost data on your Windows computer.translation of english to spanish

Powerful tool to repair Outlook PST

Microsoft Outlook is an outstanding email client which is used globally. Microsoft Outlook has different versions they are – Microsoft Outlook 2000, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016. Microsoft Outlook 2010 is the latest version of Outlook. Outlook has gained popularity among office users due to its well organized and complete integration of email components. Microsoft Outlook is so flexible that it gives users an option to manage multiple email accounts and a user can also provide options where in Outlook automatically moves emails to a specific folder sent by a particular person. All this can be done within single MS Outlook application.

MS Outlook uses PST (Personal Storage File) to store all the components. PST saves all the components of Outlook such as emails, contacts, journals, drafts etc. PST file is saved on computer hard drive or they can be saved and access from the server. Once PST file becomes corrupted/damaged (due to unknown reasons), you can repairthese corrupted PST filese quickly. Microsoft provides a default inbox repair tool that can help users to repair this corrupted file and recover any lost data.

Inbox repair tool is an executable utility that goes by the name “Scanpst.exe”. When you try to repair Outlook PST file, make sure Outlook application is closed. Locate the corrupted PST file and scan using Scanpst.exe tool. This tool can repair and fix minor corruptions in the PST file. Anything which it does not understand is skipped or deleted.

Due to these limitations of Scanpst.exe, it is recommended to opt for third part tools which can repair the corrupted PST file when it is severely corrupted or damaged.  There are many reasons for PST file to get corrupted. Some of them are discussed below

  • Accessing PST file over network: – While accessing Outlook over the network, sudden break or failure of network component when outlook performing any information related task can damage PST file.
  • File size limitation: – Regular usage of MS Outlook gradually increases the size of PST file. PST file has file size limit and when it grows or crosses that limit it may get corrupted.

Whatever might be the reason for PST file of Ms Outlook to get corrupted, it can always be repaired by Remo Repair Outlook (PST). It is the most secure and safe repair tool which can repair PST file under any circumstances. It scans and reads the content present in the corrupted PST file, and creates a new PST file to ensure the safety it.  This utility has the capability and ability to recovers emails in case of PST header damage, retrieves emails from broken PST files, repairs password protected PST files, retrieve contacts from corrupt PST file etc. This utility is disturbed for free as a demo version on Remo Software website where in user can download and repair there corrupted PST file. The demo version only repairs PST file and users can view the repaired content and if they want to get the fully repaired PST file users need to purchase the full version of the software.

How to Delete Files using Windows Command Prompt

Deleting files is easy thing; you just need to right-click on the file and click on Delete option. Yet, there are some files which can’t be deleted and they are in use by another application so you can’t delete a file with the mouse click. So, when files cannot be deleted from Windows Explorer then it can be easily deleted from Command Prompt. Want to know how? Well, here are the steps to delete files using Windows Command Prompt.

Method 1: Preparing File for Deletion

First locate your file:

  1. If you know where the files are located then move to it and open the appropriate folder.
  2. In case, if you don’t know where the file is then go to Start search and type its name then right-click the file, when it pops up, click on it and open the file location and go to the file directly.

Note: Here the exception is, if you are trying to delete a file from the “System32” folder, which is Windows’ system files folder then keep your file there only.

  1. Next, click and drag your file onto the desktop so that it will make the deletion process easier as you won’t have to change the deletion location from within Command Prompt.
  2. Now, right-click your file and this will prompt a drop-down menu.
  3. Next, click Properties present at the bottom of the drop-down menu.
  4. Look at the file extension. The file’s extension will be listed near the top of the “General” tab in the “Properties” window and to the right of the “Type of file:” text. Here, you need to know your file’s extension in order to delete it using Command Prompt. Some of the common extensions include:
  • .txt for Text files
  • .jpg or .ping for image files.
  • .docx for MS Word files.
  • .mov, .wmv, .mp4 for video files.
  • .mp3, .wav for sound files.
  • .exe for executable file
  • .link for shortcut files.
  1. Write down the file extension and now you are ready to use Command Prompt.

Method 2: Deleting the File with Command Prompt

  1. Open Command Prompt. Here, you want to avoid the “Administrator” (or “Admin”) version of Command Prompt unless if you are deleting a file in the “System32” folder. You can open Command Prompt in various ways depending on the version of Windows you are using:
  • Hold down ? Win and press X, then click on Command Prompt above the Start button.
  • Next, right-click on the Start button which is in the bottom-left corner of the screen and click the Command Prompt in the pop-up window.
  • Now, type “Command Prompt” into the search bar of Start menu (In case of Windows 8, move your mouse to the top-right corner of the screen and click the magnifying glass) and click on the “Command Prompt” icon as it appears.
  • Now, open the “Run” app from the Start menu and type “cmd”, and on click OK.
  1. Next, type cd desktop and press Enter. This will change the location (or “directory”) in Command Prompt to your desktop.
  • By opening Command Prompt in “Administrator” mode, it will change the directory to the “System32” file. Hence, do not open Command Prompt in “Administrator” unless your file is in the “System32” folder.
  1. Type del [filename.filetype]. Replace “filename.filetype” with your file’s actual name and extension.
  • If there are spaces in file name then place quotation marks around the file name: “I likeicecream.jpg” instead of I_like_icecream.jpg or similar.
  • If you want to delete all files of same extension saved on your desktop then type *.filetype where “filetype” is the extension (e.g., *.txt).
  • Then press Enter there you will see a new, blank line appear in Command Prompt and your file will be deleted now.
  • As the “del” command removes files directly from your hard drive, no need to delete the file again from the Recycling Bin.

But, after deleting files from Windows Command Prompt if you find important ones are missing then worry not; you are at right place; Yes! File Recovery software by Remo helps in recovering files deleted using Command Prompt with ease. Not just that even files emptied from Recycle Bin, if the file bypasses the Recycle Bin, etc. in all such scenarios this tool comes handy. The added advantage of this tool is it comes with free trial version, so you can first check the recovery results and later purchase the tool. Also, there is round the clock technical assistance provided by support team to solve your queries related to the product.

Export Signatures from Outlook 2016

During some occasions, there arises the need to export signatures from Microsoft Outlook 2016. For instance, think that you have replaced an old computer with a new one. So, when you do that, you need to configure the MS Outlook including the signatures into the new system. In general, it’s a lengthy process to create signatures one after the other. However, this post will disclose a technique to export signatures on MS Outlook 2016 easily. Therefore read on to know more about the technique.


Instructions to export signatures from MS Outlook 2016

Generally, all the signatures in MS Outlook will be located in a folder known as Signature. You need to open the Signature folder in order to copy/cut signatures effectively.

  • Step 1: Open any folder and then enter the following line in the address box,

%user profile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Signatures

Thereafter, press Enter button from the keyboard. Then, the Signature folder opens up. Here you will see that each signature has three files – one HTML file, one Text file, one Rich Text Format file and then a file folder

  • Step 2: Now, from within the Signature folder you need to select and then copy the three files/documents and well as one file folder related to each signature that you wish to export
  • Step 3: Finally, paste the copied files and the folder into a secure folder of your choice

Note: If you don not wish to carryout the above-mentioned technical steps manually, then its better to opt for Outlook Migrate tool. The application will guide you though each and every step of the migration process. Most importantly, the software will automatically export the signatures or any other files from MS Outlook 2016 (or any other version). Further, using the same tool you can even create backup of the Outlook data and also import Outlook files.

Recover Data from CF Card Not Recognized by Computer On Windows 10

Hi, my CF card is not working on my digital camera. Digital camera says there is not memory card inserted. Later I connect the CF card to my computer which has Windows OS but the computer also can’t recognize it. Now, I want to know how I can repair the CF card not recognized by computer on Windows 10 and recover lost data from it.

If CF card becomes unrecognized by a computer, then don’t get panic. It gets unrecognized by computer due to various known or unknown reasons. However, long as the CF card is not physically damaged, you have a chance to recover lost data even if CF is not recognized by the computer. You can opt CF Card Recovery software to recover data from CF card not recognized by computer on Windows 10. This tool is a read-only tool which can recover various files such as music, documents, video, etc. from CF card of various brands such as Kingston, SanDisk, Transcend, Samsung, Sony, Lexar, etc. when it is corrupted or inaccessible.

Fix using Disk Management

Go to start menu

  • Select Disk Management or click on Windows and R keys simultaneously and type diskmgmt.msc.
  • Select Create and format hard disk partitions and click enter button then a list of drives will appear.
  • Now identify CF card by its size.

If you are not able to identify the CF card after following above-mentioned then CF card might be corrupted or damaged.

Reasons behind the corruption of CF card:

  • Using same CF card on multiple devices
  • Interruption like ejecting of CF card abruptly while transferring files from CF card to system or vice-versa.
  • Capturing photos or recording video when camera battery is low.
  • Virus attack also leads to corruption of data on CF card.

When users of CF card experiences any of the above-mentioned cases then it means that CF gets corrupted and become unrecognizable. You cannot do anything in such case rather than format the CF card. But before you format, you can recover data from it with the help of CF Card Recovery software easily.

Steps to Recover Data from CF Card Not Recognized by Computer on Windows 10

Step1: Download and install CF Card Recovery software and run the software. Now, connect your CF card to a computer through a card reader or USB cable.

Step2: Choose the CF card so that the tool can scan it. You only need to wait for the scanning process to over.

Step3: You can view the files when the scanning is over. Then, you can select all the data that are lost from CF card and restore them.

Features of CF Card Recovery Software:

  • This software is capable of recovering data from CF card as well as from various types of memory card such as SD, MMC, XD, SDXC, SDHC, etc. on all major versions of Windows OS.
  • You can ensure recovered data from unrecognized CF card through Preview option provided in the demo version of the software.
  • Save Recovery Session is available in demo version to avoid further rescanning of CF card.
  • Using this software, you can also recover data from the various storage device such as external hard drive, internal hard drive, USB drive, FireWire drive, memory stick, etc.